Magnesium is the fourth most common cation in the human body and second most abundant intracellular cation in the human body. Human body contains approximately 24g (1000mmole) of magnesium and it is involved in many intracellular processes and is very essential for life. The metabolic irregularity or disturbance is associated with various abnormalities. The main sources of magnesium are vegetables, soybeans, nuts, whole grain cereals, eggs and seafood. The minimum daily dietary magnesium intake to maintain magnesium balance in normal person is about 240mg per day.
Magnesium functions – Co-factor and agitator of many enzymes
Magnesium plays an important in role in functions of more than 300 enzymes, Na+. K+ ATPase, hexokines, choline esterase. It actively participates in many metabolic activities in the body. Magnesium helps to metabolize proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acid. Magnesium is also vital in regulating the cellular distribution of sodium and potassium through involvement in Na+, K+ ATPase.
Magnesium functions -Maintains irritability of the cells
Magnesium acts as an inhibitor to central nervous system, neuromuscular and cardiac muscles. For neuromuscular irritability magnesium and calcium are synergic and for cardiac muscles they are antagonist.
Magnesium functions – Maintains homeostasis of cells
Magnesium is an essential cofactor in correlative enzymes of DNA, cell cycle and apoptosis. In plasma, magnesium is important for maintaining DNA structure and veracity of DNA replication, and activating DNA repairing including nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, miss match repair and microtubilin assembly.